Atrial fibrillation (AF) can alter a patient’s life in significant ways. Potentially indicative of everything from diabetes mellitus to heart failure, this condition often requires close evaluation and incisive treatment. The presentation will include an overview of the of the relationship between atrial fibrillation and anticoagulation. The pathophysiology of AF will be explored so that nurse practitioners can make informed decisions on treatment. The presentation will conclude with guidelines-based direction on the optimal therapeutic options for patients with this condition.