Earn Pharmacology CE Credit in an Easy way!






What Makes Our CE "Simply the Best!"

    • Features concise up-to-date lectures with full slideshows
    • PowerPoint slide handouts for FREE download
    • Available 24/7 to use at your leisure
    • Fast forward/rewind capability so you can be sure to master the material

    • Full screen capability; perfect for tablet users
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    • One month to complete from time of purchase.
    • Obtain needed CE and pharmacology contact hours

Barkley & Associates, Inc. is approved as a provider of nurse practitioner continuing education by the American Association of Nurse Practitioners. AANP Provider Number 080518.

Provider approved by the California Board of Registered Nursing, Provider Number CEP 15436, for the specified number of contact hours.

All NP state regulatory agencies (i.e., State Boards of Nursing) and national certifying bodies (e.g., ANCC, AANP, AACN, PNCB, and NCC)
recognize and accept AANP CE credit for recertification! 

Advanced Pharmacology is an ever-changing field. Standard safety precautions must be followed, but as new research and clinical experience broaden our knowledge, changes in treatment and drug therapy may become necessary or appropriate. Readers are advised to check the most current product information provided by the manufacturer of each drug to be administered to verify the recommended dose, the method and duration of administration and contraindications. It is the responsibility of the licensed prescriber, relying on expertise and knowledge of the patient, to determine dosages and the best treatment for each individual patient. Neither Barkley & Associates nor any contributing authors assume any responsibility for any injury and/or damage to persons or property arising from this publication.

Fluid Responsiveness and the Six Pillars of Fluid Resuscitation


Fluid resuscitation is a vital element in acute care. Since the advent of early goal-directed therapy, there has been an emphasis on aggressive fluid resuscitation in patients with shock. However, there is great variability in practice regarding fluid challenges (FCs), leading to under- or over-hydration of the compromised patient. Such decisions can potentially have a detrimental impact on patient outcomes.

This session reviews the concepts of fluid responsiveness by utilizing six evidence-based principles to guide effective resuscitation. Included is a discussion of the use of chest x-ray, central venous pressure, and ultrasound as marginal indicators of fluid status. The session also discusses how passive leg raising and the use of noninvasive cardiac output monitoring can offer more accurate information.


The acute care provider requires knowledge that response to FC is short lived, and the response does not necessarily equate to the need for additional fluid. This session provides insight to the science of effective resuscitation in the acutely ill.